Egypt is located in North Africa on the Mediterranean Sea, and this region is home to one of the oldest civilizations on earth, the ancient Egyptian Civilization,
which started around the year 5500 BC and reverberated in everyone’s minds until the present day, as two significant kingdoms began to emerge
and develop along the Nile River historians called it Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, and about 2300 years later,
Egypt was unified under the rule of one kingdom, under the rule of one of the most famous Egyptian pharaohs at that time, King Narmer (King Mines). Since that time, the Egyptian Civilization began; the Egyptian Civilization developed along the Nile River.
The success of the ancient Egyptian Civilization was partly due to its ability to adapt to the agricultural conditions in the Nile Valley.
The predicted Nile flood and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced a surplus of crops,
which contributed to increased population density and concentration around the Nile, social development, and culture.
Egypt was called Kemit, meaning “the black land,” and the ancient Egyptians were able to keep written records using hieroglyphs, and they built a lot of enormous architecture
to show strength, and the presence of both the Nile River and the Red Sea helped them to develop substantial trade networks
Memphis was the first capital of ancient Egypt, and this Civilization flourished thousands of years ago, and the Symbols of ancient Egyptian culture had an important role
as it was famous for progress in many fields of human knowledge, from arts to sciences of technology and religion,
and the great monuments that exist now reflect the depth and greatness of this culture that greatly influenced civilizations
And this ancient Egyptian Civilization is one of the longest civilizations, and despite its fall at times due to its exposure to difficult circumstances,
it was regaining its strength and rose again, continuing for several centuries.
Civilizations of Egypt throughout history
What is the Timeline of Ancient Egyptian Civilization?
The ancient Civilization of Egypt is considered one of the most prolonged and ancient civilizations.
Even though it fell into decline at times, it regained its strength to return more robust than before, which led to its continuation for several centuries.
The following timetable shows the periods of its development as well as the periods of its decline.
- 5000 BC: The beginning of agriculture in the Nile Valley.
- 3500-3000 BC: Unification of Egypt
- 2650 BC: The beginning of the Old Kingdom.
- 2575 AD: Building the pyramids in Giza.
- 2150 BC: The beginning of the first intermediate period.
- 2074 BC: The beginning of the Middle Kingdom and the return of union and power to Egypt again.
- 1759 BC: The beginning of the second intermediate period and the Hyksos occupation of northern Egypt.
- 1539 BC: The beginning of the new kingdom by expelling the Hyksos and restoring unity to Egypt.
- 1344-1328 BC: Pharaoh Akhenaten carried out several religious reforms.
- 1336-1327 BC: The rule of Tutankhamun.
- 1279-1213 BC: Egypt reached the peak of its power during the reign of Ramesses II.
- 1150 BC: The beginning of the decline of the New Kingdom.
- 728 BC: The Nubian kings invaded Egypt.
- 656 BC: The Assyrian occupation of Egypt.
- 639 BC: Egypt’s revival again after the Assyrians’ expulsion from it.
- 525 BC: The Persians invaded Egypt.
- 332 BC: The conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great.
- 305 BC: Spread of the Greek language.
- 30 BC: Queen Cleopatra’s death and Egypt’s annexation to the Roman Empire.
Early Dynastic Period (c. 3050–2686 BC)
The Early Dynastic Period was approximately contemporary to the early Sumerian-Akkadian Civilization of Mesopotamia and ancient Elam.
The third-century BC Egyptian priest Manetho grouped the long line of kings from Menes to his own time into 30 dynasties; a system still used today.
He began his official history with the king named “Meni” (or Menes in Greek), believed to have united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.
The transition to a unified state happened more gradually than ancient Egyptian writers represented, and there is no contemporary record of Menes.
Some scholars now believe, however, that the mythical Menes may have been the king Narmer, who is depicted wearing royal regalia on the ceremonial Narmer Palette in a symbolic act of unification. In the Early Dynastic Period, which began about 3000 BC, the first of the Dynastic kings solidified control over lower Egypt by establishing a capital at Memphis, from which he could control the labor force and agriculture of the fertile delta region, as well as the lucrative and critical trade routes to the Levant.
The increasing power and wealth of the kings during the early dynastic period were reflected in their elaborate mastaba tombs and mortuary cult structures at Abydos, which were used to celebrate the deified king after his death. The vital institution of kingship developed by the kings served to legitimize state control over the land, labor, and resources that were essential to the survival and growth of ancient Egyptian Civilization.
The Old Kingdom in the Period (2613-2181 BC )
Architecture appeared and developed remarkably as the most famous monuments in Egypt were built, such as the pyramids and the Sphinx.
The pyramid of Saqqara was built in 2670 BC during the reign of King Djoser, and the three pyramids were also made,
Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure indicate the enormous power and wealth of the rulers. In that period.
The First Intermediate Period In The Period (2181-2040 BC )
There was a decline in Egypt’s power and wealth, and two central powers emerged: Hierakonpolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt.
The two forces fought for supreme power until 2040 BC when King Mentuhotep II of Thebes defeated the army of Hierakonpolis and united Egypt under Thebes.
The Middle Kingdom In The Period (1782-2040 BC )
The prosperity that resulted from the rule of Thebes led to the emergence of the Middle Kingdom. That era was called the classical era when Thebes reached the zenith of its power and wealth, and forts were built to protect Egyptian commercial interests. The first army was established
during King Amenemhat, and Egypt remained prosperous until some internal problems occurred. It allowed the Hyksos to conquer it,
and its power grew until it controlled part of Lower Egypt.
The Second Intermediate Period in The Period (1782-1570 BC )
It began with the control of the Hyksos over Egypt. Although they were invaders of Egypt and its people, they added a lot of improvements to Egyptian cultures, such as the chariot and the horse, and work in bronze and ceramics; Prince Ahmose, I succeeded in restoring it and reuniting it under the rule of Thebes.
The New Kingdom in the Period (1570-1069 BC )
began after the unification of Egypt under the rule of Thebes again, when prosperity returned. In this period, the term pharaoh appeared, as the ruler was known as a king in the past. In 1504-1492 BC, the borders of Egypt were expanded to include Syria and Palestine to the west, the Euphrates River to the north, And Nubia to the south. During the reign of Queen Hatshepsut, trade expanded with other countries.
Then her successor in power was King Thutmose III, who followed her path despite his attempt to eliminate any memory of her. Medicine was brewed, and many types of alcohol were brewed, which were prescribed to treat more than 200 types of diseases; surgery was developed, interest in women’s health increased, and bathrooms were established with the aim of hygiene and bathing,
and spending leisure time and enjoyment. In 1353 BC, Pharaoh Amenhotep the Fourth came to the throne and changed his name to Akhenaten. There were many gods, such as Amun, Isis, and Osiris, except the worship of Amun, was the most popular. Still, Akhenaten and Nefertiti abandoned those beliefs and carried out religious reforms that required the establishment of a new religion based on the worship of a god Only one. In the period 1353-1336 BC, the capital moved to Amarna. He was followed in power by his son Tutankhamun, who returned the money to Thebes, and Ramses II ruled after him, and during his reign, the Battle of Kadesh took place in 1274 BC, although it ended in a draw. However, Ramses considered it a victory and celebrated himself as a hero and a god, and during his reign, the first peace treaty was signed, the Kadesh Treaty, in 1258 BC.
The Third Intermediate Period (1069-525 BC)
Ramses III ruled in the period 1186-1155 BC and followed the policy of Ramesses II during his rule. Many peoples living on the coast coveted the wealth of Egypt at that time,
which led to its invasion several times, the last of which was the Battle of Showa in 1178 BC, which ended in victory Ramses III. After his death, his successors tried to maintain his policy. Still, they faced resistance from the people of the occupied lands. With time the priests of the God Amun seized a large part of the Egyptian lands and collected enough wealth to threaten the security of the central government. By Ramses XI, the central government had collapsed, and the period began. The third medium.
Egypt united again during the reign of the King of Kush in 752-722 BC, but it collapsed when the Assyrians invaded it in 671 BC. Still, they did not succeed in controlling it,
so they withdrew and left it destroyed in the hands of the local rulers. It was rebuilt in 525 BC, then conquered The Persians, and remained under the Persian occupation until the advent of Alexander the Great in 332 BC. He took control of Egypt without any combat campaigns, established the city of Alexandria, then moved on to conquer the Persian Empire after his death in 323 BC. Ptolemy moved his corpse to Alexandria and established the Ptolemaic dynasty in 30-323 BC.
The last of the Ptolemaic dynasty was Queen Cleopatra, who killed herself in 30 BC after the Romans defeated her forces; and Egypt remained under the control of the Romans in the period 30 BC-476 AD, then the Byzantine Empire took possession of it in the period 527-646 AD until the Muslims conquered it under the leadership of the Caliph Omar, may God be pleased with him, and became affiliated to the Islamic Caliphate.
Government and Economy in Ancient Egyptian
Administration and Trade:
The pharaoh in ancient Egyptian had complete power over the land and all of the resources it contained because of his position as the absolute king of the country.
The king was the highest-ranking military commander and the head of the government.
However, he delegated the management of his affairs to a bureaucracy made up of bureaucrats. His second in command, the vizier, was in control of the administration.
The vizier worked as the king’s spokesman and coordinated land surveys, the treasury, building projects, the legal system, and the archives. He was also in charge of the building projects.
At the region level, the nation was subdivided into as many as 42 administrative regions known as nomes.
Each nome was controlled by a nomarch, answerable to the vizier for his jurisdiction; the temples were the primary institutions supporting the economy.
The ancient Egyptians did not begin using coins until the Late period, but they did have a money-bartering system that involved regular bags of grain and the deben.
To facilitate trading throughout the nation, prices were standardized and documented in lists; for instance, the price of a shirt was five copper deben, while the price of a cow was 140 Deben. According to the standardized price list, grain could be exchanged for other items.
During the fifth century BC, coined money was first brought into Egypt from other countries, which occurred in the middle of the century.
Coins were initially utilized more as standardized pieces of precious metal than as actual money; however, over the succeeding centuries, international traders came to rely on coinage.
Ancient Egyptian Economy
Agriculture was the basis of the Economy of ancient Egypt.
The fertility that the Nile’s waters gave to neighboring lands allowed their culture to grow and develop.
The ancient Egyptians built dams, irrigation canals, and ponds designed to carry water from the river to farmland to take better advantage of these conditions.
In particular, the peasants were given various types of grain used to make bread and other foods.
In addition, the irrigation infrastructure allowed bountiful harvests of peas, lentils, or leeks, as well as fruits such as grapes, dates, or pomegranates.
This agricultural wealth made the ancient Egyptians obtain a crop more than what was necessary for their food.
This allowed them to establish trade relations with various foreign regions, especially Mediterranean ones.
The Legal System:
The ancient Egyptians called the idea of law and order Ma’at. The official leader of the legal system was the pharaoh; He was in charge of making laws, giving justice, and keeping law and order. Documents from ancient Egyptian courts show that Egyptian law was based on a common-sense view of right and wrong, emphasizing coming to agreements and solving problems instead of strictly following a complicated set of laws. This is true even though no ancient Egyptian legal codes have been kept.
Local councils of elders, also called Kenbet in the New Kingdom, were in charge of making court decisions about small claims and minor disagreements; these cases can cost anywhere from a few dollars to several hundred.
Murder, big land deals, and stealing tombs were brought before the Great Kenbet, run by the vizier or the pharaoh. The plaintiffs and defendants were expected to represent themselves in court and swear under oath that what they said was true. In some cases, the state would be both the prosecutor and the judge, and it was legal to use physical punishments, like beatings, on the accused to get a confession and the names of any possible accomplices. Court scribes wrote down the complaint, the evidence, and the case’s decision so that it could be used in the future. This was done no matter how severe the accusations against the defendant were.
Depending on the severity of the crime, even the most minor offenses could lead to fines, beatings, mutilation of facial features, or exile. People were put to death by cutting off their heads, drowning them, or sticking them on a stake.
This was only done for the most severe crimes, such as murder and stealing tombs. It’s possible that the criminal’s family could also be punished. From the time of the New Kingdom onward, oracles were a big part of the legal system and helped with civil and criminal cases. The rules said to ask God a question with a “yes” or “no” answer to find out if something was morally okay. The God, who a group of priests was carrying, chose one of the two options by moving forward or backward or pointing to one of the answers written on a piece of Papyrus or an ostracon.
The Nile River:
To benefit from the waters of the Nile, the Egyptians had to study its annual cycles.
Thus, they established three stations: Achette, Beret, and Shemo.
The first, Akhet, was when the waters of the Nile flooded the neighboring lands.
This stage started in June and lasted until September. When the waters receded, a layer of silt remained on the ground, which added soil fertility.
Then the wall began when the fields were sown. Once this was done, they used dams and canals to irrigate the land.
Finally, the shmu was harvest time, between March and May.
The improvement of ancient Egyptian Civilization can be traced to several good geographical locations, including the Nile River, which flooded the land every year, making it rich and fertile. Because of this, the ancient Egyptians were able to make more food than they needed, which gave them more time and money to spend on things like cultural growth, technological progress, and artistic expression. Land management was essential in ancient Egypt because taxes were based on the total land a person owned.
How well Egypt’s agriculture did depended on how the Nile River flowed. The Egyptians had three different times of the year: Akhet, which was the time of flooding; Peret, which was the time of planting; and Shemu (harvesting). The flooding season lasted from June to September, when it deposited a layer of mineral-rich silt on the riverbanks, making for optimal crop-growing conditions. After the floodwaters went down, the growing season went from October to February the following year. Farmers worked the land and planted seeds in the fields before ditches and canals were used to water them. Egypt didn’t get much rain, so its farmers used water from the Nile to water their crops. From March to May, farmers would use sickles to harvest their crops. Once the crops were harvested, the grain would be separated from the straw with a flail. After winnowing separated the trash from the grain, the grain could be ground into flour, fermented into beer, or stored for later use.
Ancient Egyptians grew emmer, barley, and many other kinds of cereal, which they used to make bread and beer, which were the most important foods at the time. Flax plants were grown just for their fibers, which came from the stems. These plants were dug up and harvested before the flowers grew. These fibers were separated along their length and spun into thread, then used to make linen sheets and clothes. Papyrus was a plant that grew along the banks of the Nile River, and this plant was used to make paper. Garden plots were made so that people could grow fruits and vegetables close to homes and on higher ground. These plots had to be watered by hand. Grapes were developed to make wine, but other crops like leeks, garlic, melons, squashes, lentils, lettuce, and other vegetables were also grown. Grapes were used to making wine.
The Egyptian rulers instituted several taxes that had to be paid in kind or by labor since there was no currency.
In charge of the charges was the vizier, who acted on behalf of the pharaoh.
The tax system was progressive, meaning everyone paid according to their origins.
Farmers handed over their crops, artisans with a portion of what they made, and hunters with what they caught.
In addition to these taxes, one person from each family had to be present to work in the state for a few weeks a year.
The work ranged from cleaning canals to building tombs, through to mining. The richest was paying someone to take his place.
Political and social organization in ancient Egypt:
The importance of religion in all aspects of daily Life extended to politics; in this sense, ancient Egypt can be considered a theocratic state
where the pharaoh also conducted religious leadership as a mediator with the gods.
This circumstance is observed in the country’s social structure.
At the top of the social hierarchy was the pharaoh, the political and religious leader.
Also, as noted, some Egyptologists claim that the king was considered a deity in his own right, which extended to his entire family.
In the next step were the priests, starting with the highest clergy; behind them were those in charge of administration.
Within this social class stood out the scribes, whose job was to think through writing all the laws, trade agreements, or sacred texts of ancient Egypt.
The army took the next step, followed by merchants, artisans, and peasants.
Under these were only enslaved people, who had no rights as citizens and were often prisoners of war.
Pharaoh in the ancient Egyptian Civilization:
The pharaoh was considered one of the highest achievers in Egyptian Civilization and thus had absolute power over the citizens,
as well as being responsible for maintaining order in the universe.
As indicated, the king had almost divine consideration and was the mediator between the gods and living beings, including animals and plants.
Egyptian art, which includes multiple depictions of pharaohs, tended to idealize their personality,
as it was not about faithfully representing their bodies but rather recreating an ideal of perfection.
Priestly Class in ِAncient Egyptian:
As in all theocratic states, the priestly class has accumulated enormous powers.
Within this category was the high priest, responsible for the worship administration.
For many centuries, the priests formed a class that sometimes rivaled the pharaoh himself in influence when he was weak.
These priests were divided into several classes, each with different functions.
They were all required to purify themselves frequently, and every day they held rituals in which they sang religious hymns.
Apart from this, his other assignment was studying science and practicing medicine.
Another religious position, though closely related to politics, was Reverend Sim.
One of the most critical positions in the religious hierarchy was almost always occupied by the heir to the pharaoh, his eldest son.
Its functions were to regulate the rituals celebrated upon the death of a king, including the parts that facilitated the deceased’s entry into the afterlife.
Nobles in Ancient Egyptian :
Most of the nobles consisted of the king’s family; This class was supplemented by members of other families who supported the pharaoh.
In these cases, the most common was that they received wealth and land in addition to being appointed governors.
For this reason, nobles used to own large tracts of land, usually in the provinces they ruled.
In the social hierarchy, the nobles were below the pharaoh and the priests.
Its authority emanated from the king, whose role was to ensure the observance of laws and the maintenance of social order.
In a complex country like ancient Egypt, the pharaohs needed reliable people to take care of daily Life.
The most important position was that of the vizier, the king’s right-hand man. His duties ranged from running the state to advising on the business conducted.
They also handled all the secret documents and the procurement of food supplies for the pharaoh’s family.
All the problems that might arise in the palace were his business, so the king had nothing to worry about. This included defending the entire royal family.
The minister also had a job in the economic department; thus, they were responsible for collecting taxes and assigned various officials to carry out this task.
Likewise, they studied and initiated projects that would help improve agriculture, including building canals, dams, and ponds.
Egyptologists claim this figure was also responsible for protecting the country’s treasures. To do this, they created a grain storage system,
because since there was no currency, all trade and taxes were collected in kind.
Enslaved people in Ancient Egyptian Civilization:
Enslaved people were established in ancient Egypt. In the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1175 BC), enslaved people, servants, and peasants comprised 80% of the population.
Enslaved people were generally prisoners in some of the wars fought by the Egyptian armies. Once captured, they were at the disposal of the state, which decided their fate.
Often, they were sold to the highest bidder.
Although there are different theories, several authors claim that these enslaved people were used to construct buildings, including the pyramids.
Likewise, some of them were commissioned to embalm corpses.
Enslaved people in ancient Egypt were not deprived of their rights; they were allowed the right to own property,
marry, and inherit lands and the freedom to get rid of slavery.
What was the religion of the ancient Egyptians?
Ancient Egyptian religion was a combination of myths, beliefs, and religious practices in Ancient Egypt.
This combination was essential in the Egyptians’ lives as it influenced them in many ways.
The polytheistic religion, this set of beliefs, was composed of several gods, among which Ra, Osiris, Isis, and Horus stood out.
The Egyptians believed in the continuity of Life after death and that Life on earth would be just one of the stages of existence.
The religious belief of the Egyptians was based on a principle known as “maat,” which represented an idea of harmony.
In this sense, they believed that each person’s actions reflected on themselves and everyone.
Thus, to prevent chaos from being installed in the universe, each person should do their part to maintain this harmony.
This principle was associated with the goddess of the same name.
Another important concept of the ancient Egyptian religion was what was called “heka,” which means magic.
This concept also represented a god of the same name (the God of magic).
It was fundamental to the Egyptian religion, as only from the heka could the gods manifest their power.
The ancient Egyptian gods were related to everyday situations, so for these ancient people, natural events happened as a divine manifestations.
The floods of the Nile, for example, were considered a gift from the gods.
Furthermore, the Egyptians believed that some standard practices were taught by the gods, such as the belief that agriculture was introduced to humans by Osiris and mummified by Anubis.
The ancient Egyptian gods could be represented in several ways, taking the forms:
Anthropomorphic: human form;
Zoomorphic: animal form;
Anthropozoomorphic: human and animal form.
The Egyptians still built prominent temples dedicated to worshipping their gods, and these places were the responsibility of the priests.
The priests were also assigned the obligation to carry out religious festivals.
In Ancient Egypt, there were both male and female priests, and they could marry, raise a family, and own private property.
The Egyptian religion is related to mummification because the practice of mummification was a religious event attached to ritual prayer.
During the mummification process, the internal organs were removed and stored separately from the rest of the body.
It is possible that the purpose of mummification was to maintain the connection between the ka, which is a part of the human soul, and the other two
elements so that it could continue into the afterlife by preserving the body in this world. Cats and dogs were also mummified, which demonstrates the significant
role that domestic animals played in Egyptian culture.
Life After Death in Ancient Egyptian History:
The ancient Egyptians’ belief in the continuity of Life after death was a fundamental characteristic of their religion and greatly influenced people’s lives.
This belief was so strong that, for a long time, ancient Egyptians avoided long military campaigns for fear that
those killed abroad would not have access to the funerary rites necessary for the continuity of their lives.
Still based on this belief, the ancient Egyptians developed a mummification process that guaranteed the preservation of the body, which they believed
would ensure the continuity of Life after death. According to the precepts of this religiosity,
this mummification process had been taught to men by Anubis when he performed the first mummification with the body of Osiris.
Furthermore, the ancient Egyptians believed that each person who died would have their actions in Life judged in a court ruled by Osiris.
In this court, the dead would make a negative confession and have their actions judged from a scale,
which would weigh the heart (representing the actions) and a feather (representing the notion of justice).
Those who were considered good people would have access to paradise.
This preoccupation with death led the ancient Egyptians to build large funerary tombs in which bodies were deposited.
Among them, the mascaras, hypogeous, and pyramids stood out, planned, and constructed solely and exclusively as tombs.
Of these constructions, the most famous were the pyramids, emphasizing the Pyramids of Giza, located on the outskirts of Cairo, the capital of Egypt.
Military Power :
The ancient Egyptian military was in charge of protecting Egypt from invasion foreign invasion
and ensuring that Egypt was the strongest country in the ancient Near East; the ancient Egyptian military was also responsible for keeping Egypt as the most powerful country in the area. During the Old Kingdom, the military participated in civil wars and ensured safe mining trips to the Sinai Peninsula. The military also participated in these wars during the First and Second Intermediate Periods. The army was in charge of keeping the fortifications along the main trade routes in good shape. One place where you can see this kind of defense is Buhen, which is on the way to Nubia. Fortifications were also built so that they could be used as bases for the military. For example, the castle at Sile was used as a starting point for trips to the Levant. During the New Kingdom, a series of Egyptian pharaohs led military campaigns against Kush and parts of the Levant, which led to their conquest.
Bows and arrows, spears, and shields with round tops made from leather stretched over a wooden frame were the standard military gear; the Hyksos invaders were the ones who first brought chariots to Egypt, which were later used by the New Kingdom’s army. After bronze was discovered, weapons and armor were improved in the following ways: shields were now made of solid wood and held together with a bronze buckle; spear tips were given bronze points, and the khopesh was taken from Asian warriors.
In art and writing, the pharaoh was often shown riding at the front of the army. But there are signs that some pharaohs, like Seqenenre Tao II and his sons, led their armies on horseback. On the other hand, another school of thought says that “kings of this time did not fight with their troops and lead from the front lines.” People from the general population were asked to serve as soldiers, but Egypt also had mercenaries from Nubia, Kush, and Libya during and after the New Kingdom.
Arts of Ancient Egyptian Civilization:
The ancient Egyptians produced art to serve functional purposes. For over 3500 years
The ancient Egyptians made reliefs into rocks to show their successes in wars, royal orders, and religious symbols.
People who didn’t have much money could buy things like shabti statues and books of the dead, which they thought would protect them in the afterlife if they used them. During the Middle Kingdom, it was common to put small wood or clay sculptures on tombs that showed everyday life scenes.
The workers, homes, boats, and even military formations on these models have scaled versions of what the ancient Egyptians thought the afterlife would be like. The goal of this project was to re-create the things that people would have done in the afterlife if they had lived on.
Even though ancient Egyptian art was always the same, the styles of different times and places often showed how culture and politics were changing.
Even though ancient Egyptian art was usually consistent, this was the case. During the Second Intermediate Period, after the Hyksos took over, Frescoes painted in the Minoan style were found at Avaris. The most striking example of a politically driven change in artistic forms comes from the Amarna Period, where figures were radically altered to conform to Akhenaten’s revolutionary religious ideas. Because of these changes, the Amarna Period is the most striking example of how art changed because of politics. After Akhenaten died, this style, known as “Amarna art,” was quickly abandoned, and traditional techniques were used instead.
Architecture in Ancient Egyptian :
The ancient Egyptians excelled in architecture, and their immortal monuments are the best witness.
In the Old Kingdom, mastabas and pyramids were built, representing funerary buildings, and the first pyramid built was the “Pyramid of Djoser” and then the “Pyramid of Meidum.”
except that the most famous of them all are the three pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx statue, and were built during the reign of the Fourth Dynasty
The number of pyramids constructed as resting places for the Pharaohs reached 97.
The first architect in history, Imhotep, was responsible for creating the first pyramid. According to legend,
the idea was born from his attempt to join several terraces to build a building pointing toward the sky.
According to the latest calculations made in 2008, the ancient Egyptian Civilization built 138 pyramids, mainly those located in the Giza Valley.
The purpose of these ruins was to serve as tombs for the pharaohs and their relatives.
Inside there are several rooms connected by narrow corridors.
Offerings were placed in the chambers so that the pharaoh could make the transition to the afterlife comfortable.
Then the spread of funerary temples began in the era of the Middle Kingdom, and the kings of the 12th dynasty
in the Fayoum region were interested in irrigation work; they built castles, forts, and walls on the eastern borders of Egypt.
The era of the New Kingdom is considered the most significant period and is known for the styles of architecture, mural images,
crafts, and fine arts that appear on the walls of some massive temples of various designs, such as Karnak, Luxor, and Abu Simbel.
The era of “Thutmose I” is considered a turning point in building the pyramid to be a cemetery,
and tombs hidden in the interior of the mountain on the western mainland in Luxor were carved, characterized by richness and beauty in their funerary furniture,
and this appears clearly in the tomb of King “Tutankhamun.”
To preserve the wall inscriptions, the artists of this country used recessed and prominent engravings to avoid being lost or distorted.
The last thing discovered from the tombs of the Valley of the Kings was the tomb of the sons of Ramesses II,
which is considered one of the largest in the area and contains 15 mummies.
The Pharaonic obelisks were erected in pairs in front of the entrances to the temples and carved from granite.
on the eastern mainland and the temples carved into the rock, such as “Abu Simbel the Great” and “Abu Simbel the Little.”
New trends appeared in the arts of architecture, plastic arts, and applied arts and were demonstrated in carving giant and small statues
and decorating the columns of temples and wall inscriptions.
Mastaba Tombs :
The pyramids were not the only buildings intended to be used as tombs. Thus, mastaba and minus also had this function.
The first was built in the shape of a truncated pyramid and had an underground chamber where the mummified bodies of members of the nobility were deposited.
In contrast, the hypogea were tombs built underground on the slopes of the mountains; inside the structure was a chapel and a fountain.
Next to it was the room where the mummy was buried. This type of building was reserved for the privileged classes and the wealthy
Egyptian Hieroglyphs Writing :
Hieroglyphics date from c. 3000 BC, consisting of hundreds of symbols. A hieroglyph can represent a word, a sound, or a silent determinant;
The same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts. Hieroglyphs were a formal script used on stone monuments and tombs, which could be as detailed as individual works of art.
In everyday writing, scribes used a cursive form called hieratic, which was faster and easier.
While formal hieroglyphs could be read in rows or columns in any direction (although they were usually written from right to left), hieratic was always written from right to left,
usually in horizontal rows, The new form of writing, the demotic became the dominant writing style,
and it is this form of writing—along with formal hieroglyphs—that accompanies the Greek text on the Rosetta Stone.
Around the first century AD, the Coptic alphabet began to be used alongside the Demotic script. Coptic is a modified Greek alphabet with some demotic signs added.
Although formal hieroglyphs were used in a ceremonial role until the fourth century, in the end, only a small handful of priests could still read them., When the traditional religious institutions were dissolved, knowledge of hieroglyphs was mostly lost. Attempts to decipher it date back to the Byzantine period and the Islamic era in Egypt, but only in the 1820s, after its discovery.
From the Rosetta Stone and years of research by Thomas Young and Jean-François Champollion, hieroglyphs have mainly been deciphered.
The antiquities of the Egyptians confirm their prowess in writing and literature, and this appears clearly in the antiquities left by the Egyptians.
History will not forget the Egyptians’ merit over humanity in inventing writing, which the Greeks called “the hieroglyphic line.” The hieroglyphic alphabet consists of 24 letters.
The ancient Egyptians used black or red ink to write on Papyrus.
The Egyptians excelled in religious literature that dealt with religious beliefs and their theories about the afterlife, the secrets of the universe,
the various myths of the gods, prayers, and chants. The oldest examples of religious literature are the “Texts of the Pyramids” and “The Book of the Dead.”
The ancient Egyptian writer also excelled in writing stories and was keen on making the world a tool for communicating wisdom and etiquette.
The Egyptians remained keen on narrating their heritage of wisdom and sayings and on repeating them in their feasts, celebrations, and traditions.
Thus, the Egyptians were among the peoples of the world keener to record and write down their history and the events they were exposed to.
With this civilized step, many Egyptian writers, wise men, and intellectuals appeared who left us works that indicate the extent of the advancement of thought and culture in Egypt.
Rosetta Stone :
The Rosetta Stone was discovered in 1799 AD; without it, archaeologists would not have been able to read the blogs of the ancient Egyptians. The Egyptian Civilization would have remained unknown. French Jean-Francois Champollion on a copy of the stone, and studied the texts written in it,
and with the face of many hypotheses and challenges announced in the year 1822 AD that he was able to decipher the symbols of the ancient Egyptian language, and laid the foundations for the ancient Egyptian language, which was completed by hundreds of researchers in the world after him
Music in ancient Egypt:
The Egyptians loved music and singing. They accepted the piece and used it in raising young people and in public and private ceremonies, especially in the army,
as well as in prayers and burying the dead. In the era of the Old Kingdom, the Egyptians knew wind instruments.
and strings such as the “harp” (its Pharaonic name is Tibouti), and they created patterns And forms of instruments that perform different rhythms and tones,
and they developed them through the stages of their ancient history.
Daily Life in ancient Egypt:
Most of the ancient Egyptians were farmers tied to the land. Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family members and were constructed of mud bricks to keep them cool in the heat of the day; Each house had an open-roofed kitchen containing a grindstone for grinding grain and a small oven for baking bread. Ceramics were used as household items for storing, preparing, transporting, and consuming food, drink, and raw materials. The walls were painted white and could be covered with dyed linen wall plaster. The floors were covered with reed mats, wooden benches, raised beds consisting of earth, and individual tables made up of furniture.
The Egyptians celebrated holidays and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
The ancient Egyptians placed great value on cleanliness and appearance. Most bathe in the Nile and use a fungal soap from animal fat and chalk. Men shaved their entire bodies for cleanliness; Perfumes and fragrant ointments covered unpleasant odors and soothed the skin. Clothing was made of simple linen sheets bleached white, and men and women of the upper classes wore wigs, jewelry, and cosmetics. Children remained without clothes until puberty, around the age of twelve.
The mothers were responsible for the care of the children, while the father provided the family income.
Music and dancing were popular entertainment for those who could afford it. Early instruments included flutes and guitars, while tools similar to trumpets, oboes, and pipes later developed and became popular. In the era of the New Kingdom, the Egyptians played bells, cymbals, tambourines, and imported drums. Oud and guitars from Asia. The sistrum was a rattle-like musical instrument of particular importance in religious ceremonies.
The ancient Egyptians enjoyed various recreational activities, including games and music. Senet, a board game in which pieces move according to random chance, has been particularly popular since early times; Another similar game was then, which had a circular game board. “Hounds and Jackals,” also known as 58 holes, is another example of a board game played in ancient Egypt. The first complete set of this game was discovered in the Thebes tomb of the Egyptian Pharaoh Amenemhat IV, dating back to the Thirteenth Dynasty. Juggling and ball games were popular with children, and wrestling is also documented in the Beni Hassan necropolis. The wealthy in ancient Egyptian society also enjoyed hunting, fishing, and boating.
The excavations of the workers’ village at Deir el-Medina have resulted in one of the most well-documented accounts of community life in the ancient world, spanning nearly four hundred years. There is no relative location where the organization, social interactions, work, and community living conditions have been studied in such detail.
Clothes and Decorations:
The Egyptians knew how to adorn themselves with jewelry, and their products were distinguished by high artistic accuracy and beauty of formation.
Decorative elements were derived from nature, such as Papyrus, palm trees, lotus flowers, and precious stones.
They used amulets that they believed protected them from evil forces. Women, in particular, were keen to pay attention to their adornment
and used kohl, bracelets, necklaces, rings, and necklaces. And henna, as the clothes in Pharaonic Egypt differed from class to class,
and the dresses were made of soft linen or silk fabrics imported from the countries of ancient Syria. The clothes varied according to different occasions.
Sciences in Ancient Egyptian
Ancient Egyptian physicians in the ancient Near East were famous for their healing skills, and some, like Imhotep, remained famous long after their death. Herodotus noted that there was a high degree of specialization among Egyptian physicians, with some treating only the head or stomach and others being ophthalmologists and dentists trained Doctors in the Bir Ankh or “House of Life” institution, especially those that had their headquarters in Bir Bastet during the New Kingdom and in Abydos and Sais in the late period. Experimental medical papyri show knowledge of anatomy, injuries, and experimental treatments.
Dressings treated wounds with raw meat, white linen, sutures, nets, bandages, and swabs soaked with honey to prevent infection, while opium, thyme, and belladonna were used to relieve pain.
Early records of burn treatment describe burn dressings using milk from the mothers of male infants. The prayer was to the goddess Isis, and moldy bread, honey, and copper salts were used to prevent infection from dirt in burns. Garlic and onions were used regularly to promote good health and were believed to relieve asthma symptoms. Ancient Egyptian surgeons sutured wounds and broken bones and amputated diseased limbs. Still, they realized that some injuries were so severe that they did not make the patient feel comfortable until death occurred.
Astronomy In Ancient Egyptian:
Like many other ancient cultures, the ancient Egyptians were fascinated by the night sky. They used the positions of the stars to determine how to precisely line their pyramids and sun temples with the earth’s four cardinal points. Using a device called a merkhet (comparable to an astrolabe), astronomer-priests could lay out the foundations of buildings with astounding precision by taking sightings of the Great Bear and Orion with the instrument; an illustration of this would be the Great Pyramid of Giza.
This incredible structure covers more than 13 acres and is made up of over 6.5 million limestone slabs. It is truly one of a kind. With an inaccuracy of less than half a degree on each of its four sides, it is precisely positioned to face north, east, south, and west, respectively. They are also almost similar in length, with a difference in distance between one side and the other of no more than eight inches or twenty centimeters.
The ancient Egyptians firmly believed that the gods inhabited the Duat, Osiris’ dominion. It can be found in the region of the sky where Orion and Sirius rise heliacally just ahead of the sun at dawn on the summer solstice. This region is known as the Summer Triangle. Some Egyptologists believe that the Giza plaza, home to three enormous pyramids, the Sphinx, and the Nile, reflects the Duat in reverse. The three pyramids are meant to depict the three stars that makeup Orion’s belt.
The Sphinx represents Leo’s constellation, and the Nile represents the Milky Way. It is not unusual for other ancient societies to have the idea of making a sacred landscape on earth that reflects the night sky. Ancient people honored their gods and brought divine energy down to the ground by constructing pyramids, temples, and tombs aligned with the stars and the earth’s cardinal points. This kept the world from descending into complete anarchy.
Ancient Egyptian Calendar:
On the incent Egyptian calendar, a year had 365 days and was split into three seasons and twelve months. Each month had 30 days, divided into three ten-day weeks.
Osiris, Isis, Horus, Seth, and Nephthys were all born in the last five days of the year, and Nephthys was born on the previous day of the year.
Because the ancient Egyptians didn’t consider leap years, their calendar became increasingly out of sync with the natural seasons. As a result, there was a time when summer months fell in the middle of winter.
On average, their calendar year didn’t match the year of the seasons once every 1,460 years.
As each season came and went, it was like the Nile, and farming practices were repeating themselves. The Julian calendar’s first day of the year was July 19. This was also the first day of the first season, called akhet; The Nile River was at its highest level during this time. The following season, which started on November 16, was called peret. This was the time when the plants started to grow. When the last season, Shemu, began on March 17, the harvest was in full swing. From July 14 to July 18, which were the birthdays of the gods, the last five days of the year were thought to be bad luck and dangerous.
A religious calendar also kept track of the festivals and ceremonies tied to certain gods and temples.
In addition to the municipal calendar, there was also this calendar. Because this calendar was based on a month that was 29.5 days long, it could show the cycles of agriculture and the stars more accurately.
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