Who Were the Pharaohs in Ancient Egypt?
Ancient Egyptian pharaohs: A pharaoh was the title given to kings (with the rank of deities) in ancient Egypt.
The term is of Egyptian origin, which correctly means “the high house,” initially referring to the royal palace.
This term was not used much by the Egyptians themselves.
However, contemporary historians have adopted and popularized the word due to the inclusion of this title in the Bible, specifically in the Book of Exodus.
The image that the ordinary people have of the pharaohs comes, in large part, from that given to us by the tremendous cinematic productions,
in which the Pharaoh appears as a full-powered king ruling in an absolute fashion, surrounded by a court of servants, and forcing many enslaved people to erect monuments in their honor.
But, although many pharaohs were undoubtedly tyrants – the idea of absolute monarchy began here
the truth is that this term includes a wide variety of rulers of different natures and interests.
In about three thousand years of pharaonic tradition, men (and some women) with very different aspirations ascended the throne of Egypt From the mysterious
builders of the Pyramids of Giza to the mystical poet Akhenaten, via the legendary Ramses II
we find a diversity of individuals who have generally ruled one of the essential human civilizations.
The Power of the Pharaoh in Ancient Egypt
The pharaohs were the kings of ancient Egypt; they had absolute powers in society, deciding on political, religious, economic, and military life.
Since the transfer of power in ancient Egypt was hereditary, the Pharaoh was not chosen by vote but because he was the son of another pharaoh.
In this way, many dynasties continued in power for hundreds of years.
In the Egyptian civilization, the pharaohs were considered living deities.
The Egyptians believed that these rulers were direct sons of Osiris, so they acted as mediators between the gods and the Egyptian population.
There are 30 dynasties with more than 170 kings.
These kings ruled Egypt for 3,065 years, from 3,400 B.C. to 335 B.C., during the Old Kingdom, Middle Kingdom, New Kingdom, and Late Period.
Egypt had many famous rulers who came from other places, and these rulers had a significant impact on the history of this great country.
Taxes collected in Egypt were concentrated in the hands of the Pharaoh, and it was he who decided how to use the tribute.
Much of this amount was collected from the Pharaoh’s family and used to build palaces, and monuments, buy jewelry, etc.
Another part was used to pay officials’ salaries (scribes, soldiers, priests, administrators, etc.) and to maintain the kingdom.
While he was still alive, the Pharaoh began building his pyramid, which was supposed to be the tomb for his body.
As the Egyptians believed in the afterlife, the pyramid safely stored the Pharaoh’s mummified body and its treasures.
The Book of the Dead was also placed in the coffin, which counted all the good things Pharaoh had done in life.
This autobiography was necessary, as the Egyptians believed that Osiris (the god of the dead) would use it to judge the dead.
How Many Pharaohs were in ancient Egypt?
The ancient Egyptian empire spanned over 3,000 years and an estimated 170 pharaohs, from Narmer, who ruled in the thirty-first century BC, to Cleopatra, who ruled until 30 BC.
The role of the pharaoh in the empire was critical, surpassing that of the typical king in terms of It extended to the religious and political spheres.
Who was the first Pharaoh of egypt?
Although there is some controversy among experts, many scholars and historians believe that King Narmer, or what was also called Mena as an honorific title, was the first pharaoh who ruled Upper and Lower Egypt,
which led to the emergence of the title “Lord of the Two Lands” that was called the leaders of the pharaohs. At that time.
In other accounts, it is believed that Narmer is the last king of the pre-dynastic period, that is, from about 6000 to 3150 BC, before the rise of a king named Mina who unified the country through conquest,
according to some historians of Egyptology who believe that King Narmer and King Mina are two men. They are different, and that Narmer was the one who tried to unite at the end of his reign and was succeeded by Mina, after which the next era of Egyptian history began.
Who Was The First Female Pharaoh?
Merit Nate is the first woman to rule in the history of Egypt and mankind, as she ruled Egypt for about 10 years “2939-2929 BC”. Farid, we are still in the cradle of civilization and early history,
and she was able to protect Egypt after the death of her husband; then she shared her son, King “Den” in the ruling, whose father inherited a young child who must be under guardianship, and for this,
she is considered the first woman to rule Egypt and in human history. Queen Merit-Nit was a woman with ambitions for power.
She did not empower anyone in government affairs and undertook guardianship over the throne, despite the crystallization of the origins and religious traditions that restricted the rule at the time.
List of Most Famous Egyptian pharaohs and their achievements:
1. Mina ( Narmer), The First Pharaoh of Ancient Egyptian (from 3201 to 3101 BC):
King Narmer was the founder of the first dynasty in Egypt; He was the ruler who united Upper and Lower Egypt under his control and crowned himself the first king of the two lands.
He was one of the most famous ancient Egyptian pharaohs.
He documented this great event on his plate in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
In this famous painting, we find the name of Narmer in a small square, the king wearing a white crown and killing one of his enemies with a club.
On the other side, we see the king wearing the red crown, which means he became both countries’ rulers.
2. King Tutankhamun (1341 – 1323 BC):
Tutankhamun is one of the most famous kings of Ancient Egyptian pharaohs; he assumed power when he was just ten years old, yet he was king only between 1332 BCE and 1323 BCE.
He did not have many accomplishments as a ruler,
although he made several religious reforms, many of which repaired changes from his father, Akhenaten.
Its fame is recent since its tomb was discovered in the 20th century, practically intact. But, to this day, he does not know the cause of his death. On the other hand,
the mummy brought precious information about the form of mummification.
Tutankhamun was buried in the Valley of the Kings, as were a few other pharaohs, and discovered by British archaeologist Howard Carter and his team in 1922
His tomb was filled with royal treasures, including an ornate iron dagger.
3. Ramses II (1303 – 1213 BC):
Ramses II was one of the prominent pharaohs of the New Kingdom of Egypt. He was called “the Great Ancestor” He led Egypt in several territorial conquests.
In addition, he was believed to be the main one in constructing monuments.
Ramses lived to the age of 90 when life expectancy was much lower; He continues to contribute to history
his body was taken to France, where it underwent restoration. Then, documents were prepared to guarantee his return, including a passport.
4. Pharaoh Amenhotep III (reign 1388–1351 BC):
Amenhotep contributed significantly to Egypt’s economy, which grew during his reign.
For this, Amenhotep built good commercial relations with the powers of the time.
Another fact that marked his government was investments in the arts.
In addition, he was responsible for constructing monuments, statues, and stone scarabs, which remain in good condition to this day.
Amenhotep is considered the Pharaoh with the most statues, Several ancient texts describing historical events of the period have already been discovered.
5. Hatshepsut (1507 – 1458 BC):
Another representative of the 18th dynasty, Hatshepsut, was a female Egyptian pharaoh.
While most other cultures had only male leaders, ancient Egypt thrived under the female rule.
She was the second female Pharaoh and assumed leadership of the government after the death of her husband, Thutmose II.
She is famous thanks to the success of her reign and because she was in the highest rank of any other Egyptian woman of her time.
For some historians, Hatshepsut is referred to as the first great woman in history.
6. Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten (1380 – 1336 BC):
Akhenaten was quite unpopular with the people. He was the father of Tutankhamun and tried to institute the cult only of the god Aten, a solar deity equivalent to the god Ra.
But the people had long been accustomed to polytheism, After his death, his statues were destroyed by the population itself, and his name was extinct from the Egyptian Pharaoh’s lists.
7. Pharaoh Djoser (2650 – 2575 BC):
The founder of the ancient state, Djoser, was one of the pharaohs of the Ninth Dynasty; he ruled between 2630 BC and 2611 BC and is best known for his contribution to constructing the famous limestone pyramid at Saqqara; the monument is an example of great technological innovation
and The pyramid was made to protect the tomb of Pharaoh Djoser and was created by piling huge limestone blocks in a mastaba manner.
Inscriptions have been carved into the stones, and the building is a fine example of an intelligent architectural form that, despite its height, has not lost its stability.
The structure was completed after Djoser’s death by his officer Imhotep.
8. Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops) (2620-2566 BC)
Pharaoh Khufu, also known as Cheops, was the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty of Egypt and is best known for commissioning the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza,
one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Khufu came to power around 2589 BC, and his reign was marked by a great deal of construction, including the construction of a large temple complex at Giza, which included the Great Pyramid.
The pyramid is believed to have taken around 20 years to construct and was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years, until the construction of the Lincoln Cathedral in England.
While the purpose of the Great Pyramid is still a matter of debate among historians and archaeologists, it is generally believed to have served as a tomb for Pharaoh Khufu.
The pyramid had a series of chambers and passageways, including a burial chamber, a queen’s chamber, and a series of air shafts.
Despite its immense size and complexity, the Great Pyramid was not the only structure built by Khufu. He also commissioned the construction of several other pyramids, including those of his wives and daughters,
and a temple dedicated to the goddess Hathor.
In addition to his building projects, Khufu played a significant role in Egyptian military campaigns, including expeditions to Nubia and the Sinai Peninsula. His son succeeded him,
Djedefre, continued his father’s building projects but also initiated a period of unrest that would eventually lead to the downfall of the Fourth Dynasty.
9. Egyptian Pharaoh Snefru (2613–2589 BC):
Pharaoh Sneferu, who ruled over 4,500 years ago, became famous for founding the IV dynasty of Egypt.
His reign marked the beginning of the period of the Old Kingdom (the so-called “dynasty of pharaoh-builders”).
Historical records show that Sneferu was an excellent military leader from the first days of his reign in Egypt and led several successful military campaigns.
Campaigns against Nubia and campaigns against the Sinai, in particular, were profitable since it was then that Egypt gained access to a large number of raw materials (turquoise, copper, etc.), which helped to start the Egyptians to build magnificent buildings and turn into a rich and developed state.
Under Sneferu, as many as three pyramids were erected, which still stand today. The Pharaoh Sneferu himself is considered one of the most excellent builders of the pyramids in the history of Egypt.
10. Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Khafre:
Pharaoh Khafre A.K. Chephren, Pharaoh of the 4th dynasty, is often regarded as one of the most significant pharaohs in ancient Egyptian history.
The Great Pyramid of Giza was constructed by his father, King Khufu, who also gave him his name.
During the time of the old kingdom of Egypt, he reigned from 2558 B.C. to 2532 B.C. (2686-2150 BC). His name means “The Appearance of Ra,” and among his numerous wives
was Queen Mereceankh, with whom he had a family of 12 sons, three daughters, and many spouses.
He needed to carry on his father’s work, so he built the Giza Complex’s second-largest pyramid.
In addition to that, he made the enormous Valley temple as well as the famed Sphinx.
11. Queen Nefertiti :
Queen Nefertiti was one of the most famous queens of Ancient Egypt. She is best known for her striking beauty and her role in the religious revolution of her husband, Pharaoh Akhenaten.
Nefertiti was born in the 14th century BC, during the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. Little is known about her early life, but she is believed to have been of noble birth
and may have been the daughter of a high-ranking official. She became the queen of Egypt when she married Akhenaten, who ruled Egypt from 1353 to 1336 BC.
During Akhenaten’s reign, he introduced a new religion to Egypt that worshipped only one god, Aten, and sought to move away from the traditional polytheistic religion of Ancient Egypt.
Nefertiti played a vital role in this religious revolution and was depicted alongside her husband in many new religious art forms introduced during this time.
Nefertiti was often depicted with an elongated neck, full lips, and a lovely face. One of the most famous depictions of her is the bust of Nefertiti, which was discovered in 1912
by a German archaeologist named Ludwig Borchardt.
Despite her essential role in her husband’s reign’s religious and cultural changes, Nefertiti’s life after Akhenaten’s death is mysterious. Some historians believe that she may have ruled Egypt as a pharaoh in her own right,
while others suggest that she may have been forced into exile or killed.
Regardless of the uncertainty surrounding her later life, Nefertiti remains an iconic figure in Ancient Egyptian history, revered for her beauty, intelligence, and essential role in her time’s cultural and religious changes.
12. Pharaoh Pepi II :
“Neferka, “or Pharaoh Pepi II, was the sixth and longest-reigning pharaoh of the Sixth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt and is believed to have ascended to the throne at six.
He ruled Egypt for an incredible 94 years, from around 2278 to 2184 BC.
Pepi II is known for his long and stable reign, which saw the continuation of many of the building projects and trade relationships that his predecessors had established.
He also expanded the pharaoh’s power and strengthened Egypt’s central government.
One of the most notable events of Pepi II’s reign was a campaign against the Nubians in the south. This campaign successfully established Egyptian control over Nubia, which had previously been an independent kingdom.
Pepi II also maintained peaceful relations with the neighboring kingdom of Kush, a significant gold source for Egypt.
Despite his long reign, Pepi II’s rule was not without its challenges. In the later years of his power, there was a period of political unrest and economic decline in Egypt, which may have been exacerbated by his advanced age and the lack of a clear successor.
Pepi II was also known for his patronage of the arts, and many important works of literature and religious texts were produced during his reign. He is believed to have been a prolific writer and is credited with authoring several readers on various subjects.
Pepi II’s reign ended with his death, after which he was buried in a giant pyramid complex in Saqqara. Today, his reign is remembered as a time of relative stability and prosperity in Ancient Egypt, and his legacy continues to inspire historians and archaeologists.
13. King Seti I :
Seti I, also known as the First, was a pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt who ruled from around 1290 BC to 1279 BC. He is considered one of the greatest pharaohs of the New Kingdom period,
known for his military campaigns and impressive building projects.
Seti I was the son of Ramesses I and succeeded his father to the throne after a brief reign. One of his most notable achievements was his military campaign against the Hittites,
which saw him capture the city of Kadesh and secure Egypt’s northern borders.
Seti I was also a prolific builder and is credited with commissioning many important architectural and artistic works, including the famous temple of Abydos, which he built in honor of his father.
He also constructed several other temples and monuments, including the mortuary temple of Seti I in Thebes.
Seti I sought to restore the worship of the traditional gods and return Egypt to its former glory.
Seti I’s reign ended with his death, after which his son, Ramesses II, succeeded him. Today, he is remembered as one of the greatest pharaohs of the New Kingdom period,
and his impressive building projects and military campaigns continue to fascinate historians and archaeologists alike.
14. Cleopatra VII
Cleopatra VII’s fame is more recent, after all, her tomb was only found in the twentieth century, and this highlighted the essential information for studies on ancient Egypt.
She was the last Pharaoh of the Ptolemaic Kingdom and was not born in Egypt.
However, his reign, which lasted about 20 years, brought great prosperity to the region, especially in the economy and foreign affairs.
To reach the throne, he had to compete with his brother, and it is believed that the cause of his death was suicide.
To this day, Cleopatra is an inspiration for many works in media, such as films, literature, theater, etc.
15. Queen Twosret
Queen Twosret was the last ruler of the 19th Dynasty.
The Egyptian historian ManitonSamanudi called her “Thoris.” She ruled Egypt alone for about two years, and her name means “strong” Queen Twosret’s reign ended in her death.
After the death of Seti’s successor, Ramses-Sabtah took over as king of Egypt. Ramses-Sabtah may have been Seti’s second son (Seti’s second foreign wife may have been Sotilja)
or he may have been Amun Miss’ son Ramses’s son Sabtah ruled Ancient Egyptian for six years without anything significant happening, and his older wife was Twosret.
In the third year of his reign, this king changed his name to Merneptah-Sabah, also called Sabah.
This change took effect right away; Analysis of the king’s mummy showed that he had been sick for some time.
Because of this, he probably needed a co-regent to help run the kingdom; it was decided that his mother couldn’t do this job because she was from a different country,
didn’t come from a royal family, or had already died.
And Twosret did this for her grandson, who was her son’s kid. She was never called the “king’s daughter,” so it’s possible that she was the king’s son.
16. Pharaoh Djedefre
He succeeded his father, Khufu, and ruled Ancient Egyptian for eight years, during which he built the pyramid of Abu Rawash, north of Giza.
His pyramid (ruins) has not been adequately explored, and his coffin has not been found.
Records show that Jedhafri helped his father complete the pyramid.
Records show that he built the nave next to the pyramid and several funerary temples to worship ancestors.
He also married his second sister, Hetepheres.
17. Egyptian Pharaoh Menkaure
Menkaure was the fifth king in the line of the Fourth Dynasty in the ancient kingdom of ancient Egypt.
According to archaeological evidence, he ascended the throne after his father’s death, Khafre, in 2530 BC.
According to the historian Manitou, he succeeded Menkaure as a king named Khurais.
He ruled Ancient Egyptian for about 18 or 22 years, as evidenced by the historical evidence that has been discovered about him.
His youngest son, Shepseskaf, succeeded Menkaure.
Menkaure is remembered as a pharaoh for his kindness and piety, unlike his father, Khafre, and his grandfather Khufu.
In recent history, he has been particularly famous for building his tomb in the Giza necropolis, which is now known worldwide as the “Pyramid of Menkaure.
” Menkaure probably died in 2500 BC, according to the inscriptions in his tomb.
18. Pharaoh Unas
Pharaoh Unas was the last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, reigning from approximately 2375 BC to 2345 BC. He is best known for his pyramid complex at Saqqara, which contains the first known instance of the Pyramid Texts, a collection of spells and prayers inscribed on the walls of the pyramid chamber.
During his reign, Unas continued his predecessors’ building projects and administrative policies, including constructing several temples and expanding trade relationships with neighboring kingdoms. He oversaw military campaigns against the Nubians and Libyans, securing Egypt’s southern and western borders.
Unas is primarily remembered for the Pyramid Texts inscribed in his pyramid complex. These texts, later adapted into the Coffin Texts and the Book of the Dead, provide a unique insight into Ancient Egyptian funerary beliefs and practices. They include spells and prayers intended to guide the deceased pharaoh’s soul through the afterlife, protect him from harm, and provide him with food, drink, and other necessities.
Unas’ pyramid complex also contains several impressive reliefs and sculptures, including one depicting the pharaoh hunting and participating in various religious ceremonies. Some of these reliefs are considered to be among the finest examples of Ancient Egyptian art.
After his death, Unas was buried in his pyramid complex at Saqqara, where archaeologists discovered his remains in the 19th century. Today, his pyramid complex remains a popular tourist destination and an important site for studying Ancient Egyptian culture and religion.
19. Egyptian Pharaoh Amenhotep I
Amenhotep I was the second Pharaoh of the 18th dynasty in ancient Egyptian history.
He stood out for being a strong military governor who followed the principles of his father’s government.
He continued and maintained his conquests by maintaining control of Nubia and the Nile Delta.
With the help of his mother, Amenhotep I maintained the prosperity of his cities, which made him admired for generations.
Workers worshiped him for what he had achieved for his community, allowing him to live a comfortable life while serving Egypt and the gods.
20. Mentuhotep II
Egyptian Pharaoh Mentuhotep II reigned for 51 years, but after 14 years of peace and prosperity, the Heracleopolitan tenth dynasty desecrated the Abydos cemetery
which led to a war with the Pharaoh of Thebes.
Over the next twenty years, the war went on, but neither side won utterly.
During this time, Mentuhotep changed his name, perhaps to show his desire to bring the Two Lands back together.
After the Heracleopolitans were finally defeated, the Two Lands were again united under one Pharaoh, and his name was changed to show this.
21. Mentuhotep III
Amenhotep III was the ninth Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt, the father of the infamous Akhenaten, and the grandfather of Tutankhamun.
He is widely regarded as one of the greatest rulers of Egypt (in contrast to his unremarkable but famous grandson in our time)
Because he greatly expanded the country’s borders while ensuring a period of peace and prosperity.
He benefited from the fact that his father, Thutmose IV, was a capable ruler and left behind a solid and prosperous empire.
Pharaoh Amenhotep continued his father’s path, creating a series of impressive buildings throughout Egypt.
Amenhotep’s reign is remembered as a time of artistic glory and prosperity.
He greatly influenced the economy of Egypt, which flourished during his reign due to the healthy trade relations at the time.
Also, Pharaoh Amenhotep III was known as an excellent diplomat; he knew how to win over and convince even the most stubborn person.
He generously gifted his allies with gold and other riches to ensure they would remain in his debt.
22. Pharaoh Xerxes I (reigned 486-465 BC)
Pharaoh Xerxes, also known as Khshayarsha or Achaemenes, was a king of the Achaemenid Empire who reigned from 486-465 BC. He was the son of King Darius I and the grandson of Cyrus the Great,
who founded the Achaemenid Empire.
Xerxes ascended the throne after his father’s death and quickly faced several challenges to his rule, including rebellions in Egypt and Babylon. He successfully crushed these rebellions and led several military campaigns, expanding the empire’s territory and establishing control over various regions.
One of Xerxes’ most notable achievements was the construction of the Palace of Persepolis, a grand complex of buildings and gardens that served as the ceremonial capital of the empire.
The palace was a testament to the wealth and power of the Achaemenid Empire and was decorated with intricate carvings and reliefs depicting scenes from Persian mythology and history.
However, Xerxes is perhaps best known for his military campaigns against Greece, particularly his failed invasion of the country in 480 BC.
He assembled a massive army and marched across the Hellespont to conquer Athens. However, his attack ultimately failed, with the Greeks winning a decisive victory at the Battle of Salamis.
This defeat marked a turning point in Xerxes’ reign, weakening his power and leading to several revolts.
Xerxes died in 465 BC and was succeeded by his son, Artaxerxes I. Despite his military setbacks, his reign saw significant cultural and architectural achievements,
and his legacy continues to be studied and debated by historians and scholars.
23. King Senusret
King Senusret I, also called “Expert Kare” and “Sesostris 1”, was the king of Egypt who ruled during the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom.
His reign was peaceful, and no records of military campaigns have been found.
Senusret I was the first pharaoh to irrigate Fayoum to open up more agricultural land.
He also built a complex of pyramids and tombs in Lahon.
There are several of his statues on the first floor of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, and they are in a very good state of preservation.
24. Thutmose III (1458-1425 BC)
Thutmose III, or Tuthmosis, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who reigned from approximately 1479 BCE to 1425 BCE. He was the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt and is considered
one of the most successful in ancient Egyptian history.
Thutmose III was the son of Thutmose II and a minor queen named Iset. He became king at a young age, and for the first few years of his reign, his stepmother Hatshepsut acted as regent.
However, after Hatshepsut’s death, Thutmose III took complete control of the throne.
During his reign, Thutmose III embarked on numerous military campaigns, expanding the borders of Egypt to their greatest extent. He fought against Mitanni, the Nubians, the Syrians, and the Hittites,
among others, and is considered one of the greatest military commanders in ancient Egyptian history. Thutmose III undertook numerous projects, including the Temple of Amun at Karnak.
Thutmose III was known for his religious devotion and commissioned many temples and shrines dedicated to the gods of ancient Egypt.
He also made significant contributions to the development of Egyptian art and literature, and his reign is considered a golden age in Egyptian history.
After ruling for over 50 years, Thutmose III died and was buried in the Valley of the Kings. His son, Amenhotep II, succeeded him.
25. Egyptian Pharaoh Ahmose I
Ahmose was probably only ten years old when he became Pharaoh. But despite his young age, Ahmose became one of Egypt’s greatest commanders and rulers.
A few years after his accession to the throne, Ahmose fought the Hyksos and destroyed their allies in Central Egypt.
Having captured the capital of Memphis, Ahmose attacked the capital of the Hyksos, Avaris.
But instead of moving further across the map into what is now Palestine, he moved into Nubia and capitalized on the gold mines he found there.
The next step was opening copper mines in the Sinai and resumption trade with cities on the coast of modern Syria.
During his 25-year reign, Ahmose founded the 18th dynasty, created an efficient administrative apparatus, reformed agriculture,
opened many quarries, and restored the ruined economy.
Glass production in Egypt probably began during the reign of Ahmose, and he also built various temples for the gods in Upper Egypt.
Who is the Most Famous pharaoh of ancient Egypt?
Tutankhamun is the most famous of the pharaohs. He took power at nine and became more prominent in death than life.
That’s because his tomb was only found in 1922, changing several studies by Egyptologists.
He died at 19, and there are legends about an alleged curse related to his remains. His reign was remarkable only because the polytheistic cult was revived,
as his father, Akhenaten, had tried to make civilization monotheistic.
Who was the Most Powerful Egyptian Pharaoh?
Ramses II is the third king of the Nineteenth Dynasty in ancient Egypt. His reign was the second longest in the history of Egypt, from 1279 to 1213 BC. Historians consider this pharaoh the most significant,
most famous, and most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom. The New Kingdom was undoubtedly the most potent period of ancient Egypt. After the death of Ramesses II, his successors,
and later the Egyptians, called him “great-grandfather.” In addition to the wars with the Hittites and Libyans, Ramses II was a great reformer. Undoubtedly, the deeds of this pharaoh strongly indicate his greatness.
He developed a comprehensive building strategy and erected many temples and statues throughout Egypt.
He established the city of “Bi Ramesses” in the Nile Delta as his new capital, the main base for his campaigns to Syria.
Asia to consolidate Egyptian influence and be assured of ports and transportation; after that, during his fifth year in power, he returned with his armies to clash
with the Hittites in the most famous battle in Pharaonic history, the “Battle of Kadesh,” and the number of his army at that time reached 100,000 men;
It was a formidable force that he used to enhance Egyptian influence.
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