Cairo the capital of Egypt
as are the Giza plateau and its monumental pyramids, such as the Great Pyramid. To the south is the site of the ancient city of Memphis.
When the Romans rebuilt an ancient Persian fortress along the Nile River in 116 B.C., they founded the city in what is now known as Old Cairo.
Before its establishment, Memphis or other cities served as the Pharaonic Empire’s capital. The Fatimids named the city Al-Qahira, which gave it its current name.
Cairo became the sovereign capital in 1952, following several invasions by the Mamluks, Ottomans, Napoleon, and the British.
Cairo, capital of Egypt History
Cairo was founded in 972, north of the palaces and encompassing al-Askar and Al-Qatta’i, by the Fatimid Jawhar al-Qaid, and the Al-Azhar Mosque, the world’s first university,
was built there. Although Al-Fustat remained the capital at the start of the Fatimid Caliphate, this city eventually became the urban center.
In 1176, Sultan Saladin (Salah al-Din) fortified the city by extending it and replacing the old walls with stone ones. Ishmael Bajah’s new city is separated from the old by the Citadel.
The Citadel served as the city’s administrative center as it expanded to the west and south. The construction of palaces and mosques attracted many craftsmen and traders,
making Cairo a thriving town with hundreds of mosques, madrasas, public baths, other buildings, and numerous fountains. In 1382, the Mamluk Emir Djaharks El-Khalili built a caravanserai in his honor,
which became an important economic center.
From May 2, 1250, the Mamluks ruled there, driving out Mongols and Crusaders. In his time, Cairo experienced a plague epidemic in 1348. The trade between Egypt and Europe encouraged
by Vasco de Gama slowed the city’s growth and led to the decline of Al-Fustat as a port, diverting trade to Mediterranean ports.
It is situated on the Nile’s banks and islands, south of the delta (30°3′0′′N 31°15′40′′E). The city of Giza and the ancient necropolis of Memphis are to the southwest, as are the Giza plateau and its monumental pyramids, such as the Great Pyramid. The ancient city of Memphis was constructed to the south.
It has a Mediterranean climate, with hot summers and mild winters. The most favorable season lasts from November to March, with average daytime temperatures ranging from 23 to 24 degrees Celsius.
Specifying the time of day is critical because temperatures in Egypt vary significantly between day and night. Cairo experiences scorching weather, with average highs of 35-36 °C during the day and 21-22 °C at night.
With one-fifth of Egypt’s total population, Cairo is where the majority of the country’s trade is generated or passed through. This has resulted in rapid growth,
with one out of every ten buildings under fifteen. Roads, electricity, telephones, and sewerage systems were quickly outgrown. This process has been dubbed “hyper-urbanization” by several analysts studying the changes.
Organizational structure in politics
Cairo is Egypt’s and the Middle East’s political, economic, and cultural center. It is the official residence of the Egyptian government, the Parliament (Majlis al-Sha’b), all central state and religious bodies,
and numerous diplomatic missions.
Culture in Cairo
The most important is the Egyptian Museum in Tahrir Square, which houses the world’s most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian objects. It is planned to relocate to a larger structure in the Giza area.
In this center, the Cairo Opera House was inaugurated in 1988 by President Hosni Mubarak. It hosted a concert by the London Royal Philharmonic Orchestra in January 2007 in its first performance in the Middle East and Africa, which stands out. Although classical music predominates at the city’s Opera House, Arab classical music can also be enjoyed. However, the Institute of Arab Music on Ramsis Street has a broader selection.
The Arab Music Festival, held at the Cairo Opera House in early November, is a must-see for music lovers in the city. This cultural complex also houses six other theaters and auditoriums.
The current Opera House replaced the Khedivial Opera House, also known as the Royal Opera House, which was constructed in 1869 and remained in use until 1971.
Cairo, formerly known as the East’s Hollywood, has lost its title as the East’s film capital to Hindu Bollywood. Cairo’s cinemas are primarily filled with Hollywood blockbusters with Arabic subtitles. Local productions are also popular among Cairo’s residents. These films are typically shot in large studios in Misr or Al-Ahram, close to the Giza pyramids.
The Pyramid of Cheops’ mission was to house Pharaoh Cheops’ sarcophagus, and it is estimated that approximately 2.5 million limestone blocks were used in its construction.
The two great pyramids of Kephren and Myceraeus are slightly further away from the neighboring queen’s pyramids. Initially, the Mamluks carried out public executions here,
but Saint Mitwalli chose the location for his miracles in the 19th century.
Today, the locals and tourists nail a lock of hair or clothing to the door to have their prayers answered. Bayn al-Qasryn, the city’s main public square in the Middle Ages,
is also in Islamic Cairo. Several Mamluk palaces are built in it, including the Mausoleum and Madrasa of Qalaun, which date back to 1279.
The most popular sport among Cairo residents is football. The city is home to Egypt’s two football titans, Zamalek and Al-Ahly, who have won 11 African Champions League titles, with Al-Ahly coming out on top.
Both teams play at the Cairo International Stadium, which was renovated in 2005 and has a seating capacity of 75,000. It is one of Africa’s largest and most modern stadiums, and it
also serves as the home of the Egyptian national team. Most Egyptian and African football governing bodies are in or near Cairo.
Following the departure of the Confederation of African Football, which relocated to Cairo in 2004,
the Egyptian Football Association has emerged as one of the essential federations based in the capital.
Cairo’s historic district. UNESCO World Heritage Site
Historic Cairo, hidden in the heart of modern-day Cairo, is one of the world’s oldest Islamic cities, with famous mosques, madrasas, Turkish baths, and fountains.
In 1979, the ancient city was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.