City of Giza
Giza is a city in Egypt situated on the Nile, some 20 kilometers southwest of Cairo‘s center, and is part of Cairo’s metropolitan region. It is recognized across the globe because it is close to the Giza plateau,
where the three enormous pyramids of the Fourth Dynasty were erected about 4600 years ago.
Giza is part of the ancient Necropolis of Memphis, which spanned over forty kilometers and was known as Her-teacher (the Necropolis) or Imentet in the Ancient Egyptian Empire (the West).
How old is the city of Giza?
Giza is one of the oldest cities in Egypt, with a history that dates back to the pre-dynastic period of ancient Egypt, which began around 5000 BCE.
However, the exact age of the city itself is difficult to determine, as it has grown and evolved over many centuries. The city’s modern form began to take shape in the 19th century
when it became a popular destination for European travelers and archaeologists exploring the nearby Giza Necropolis. Today, Giza is a bustling metropolis with a rich history and culture that spans millennia.
Explore the city of Giza:
The bright horizon of Cheops, Kephren is vast, and Mycerinus is divine were the names of the three massive pyramids and the surrounding Necropolis. During Cheops’ reign, the Giza plateau attained tremendous prominence.
In Giza, numerous graves, such as mastabas and hypogea, are reserved for royal family members, prominent nobles, or priests.
The pyramids that guarded the pharaohs’ remains were part of substantial funerary complexes that included temples, other tombs, and lesser pyramids.
The so-called Pyramids of the Queens were built east of Cheops’ Pyramid, measuring about 50 meters in width and 30 meters in height, to serve as graves for their mother Hetepheres and their spouses,
Merytites and Henutsen.
Part of another pyramid, southeast of the Great Pyramid, was found in 1992, with a square base of 23 meters on each side and roughly 12 meters high, with only the remnants of the first three stone rows.
The Plateau of Giza
The Plateau of Giza is a vast area located on the outskirts of Giza City and is home to some of the most iconic ancient landmarks in the world. Here are some of the top attractions to visit on the Plateau of Giza:
1-The Great Pyramid of Khufu
This is Egypt’s largest and most famous Pyramid and one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Visitors can enter the Pyramid and explore its interior passages.
2-The Pyramid of Khafre:
This Pyramid is slightly smaller than the Great Pyramid but still an impressive sight. It is located just to the south of the Great Pyramid.
3-The Pyramid of Menkaure
This is the smallest of the three main pyramids at Giza, but it is still an impressive feat of engineering. It is located to the southwest of the other two pyramids.
4-The Great Sphinx:
This massive statue of a mythical creature with a lion’s body and a human’s head is next to the pyramids. It is a must-see attraction for anyone visiting the Plateau of Giza.
5-The Solar Boat Museum:
This museum houses the reconstructed solar boat of Khufu, which was discovered near the Great Pyramid. The ship is a marvel of ancient engineering and well worth visiting.
6-The Western Cemetery:
This area is home to many smaller pyramids and tombs of lesser-known pharaohs and nobles. Visitors can explore the tombs and see their intricate decorations and hieroglyphics.
7-The Eastern Cemetery:
This area is home to several mastabas, flat-topped tombs for ancient Egyptian nobles. The largest mastaba in the area is the Mastaba of Mereruka.
8-The Valley Temple:
This temple was used to mummify pharaohs and other important figures. It is located next to the Great Sphinx and is well-preserved.
9-The Khufu Ship:
This ancient ship was discovered buried next to the Great Pyramid and has been reconstructed and is on display in its museum.
Pyramids of Giza
On the Giza, plain are three pyramids (Cheops, Kephren, and Menkaure), which are thought to have had other purposes in the past than burial.
1. The Great Pyramid of Giza
The Great Pyramid of Giza, also known as the Pyramid of Cheops, is one of the most iconic icons of the pyramid civilization.
It is constructed of roughly 2.5 million stone blocks and has a flawless slope with a peak angle of 76 degrees. It is 146 meters tall and has a 230-meter-long base on each side.
A hallway descends from its entrance to the underground crypt, where a second passage goes to a gallery, which leads to the tomb chamber.
The Pyramid is no longer accessible by its original entrance; a tunnel was built in the ninth century in the interests of Caliph Abdullah al-Mamun to discover the wealth and mysteries of Egyptian knowledge.
He did not uncover any riches despite his attempts, and the wisdom painted on the walls of the chambers did not give him any new information.
According to historian Strabo, the proper access was disguised with a “secret stone” and could be moved easily with a bolt.
The Pyramid was erected by around 80 thousand laborers on the command of the same-named pharaoh, Cheops, who was reportedly brutal to his citizens.
As Egypt’s greatest funeral monument, experts have been striving for a long time to uncover its mystery, which has been carefully guarded for more than 4 thousand years.
These investigations were conducted using infrared cameras, and the results indicate that there is most likely something undiscovered within these cameras.
Due to temperature differences of up to 6oC for nearby rooms, the investigation has concluded that there are covert cameras.
2- The Kefren Pyramid
On the same Giza plain, south of the Pyramid of Cheops, lies the Pyramid of Jafra or Kefren, which has a comparable volume but is a few meters smaller and was erected later.
It has a considerably simpler structure than this one, with just two corridors, a superior one that can be reached from the outside and an underground one. Both of these paths go straight to the burial room.
There is a chamber in the basement passage whose purpose is unclear, which has given birth to numerous mysteries. Some people have even claimed to have been ill while visiting it; however, this might be due to the environment in the tomb, which has no air intake.
One of the giant puzzles is whether the sarcophagus inside it is that of Kephren. Many mystery seekers continue to believe in hidden galleries and corridors, but they have yet to be discovered.
3- Menkaure’s Pyramid
The Pyramid of Menkaure is a third pyramid with a somewhat lesser size. At its base, it is 66 meters tall and 108 meters long, and it was known as the Divine Pyramid at the time.
Explorations on the Pyramid were done in the twentieth century. They discovered a basalt sarcophagus with a wooden casket containing a mummy.
But this mummy was neither the king for whom the PyraPyramid erected, nor was it Micerino, but rather another significant figure from the period.
It is also thought that it has undiscovered secrets inside, but not even contemporary science has been able to unravel the mystery that surrounds this pyrPyramid
4-The Great Sphinx
The Great Sphinx is a monumental statue on the Giza Plateau in Egypt, just outside Cairo. It is believed to have been built during the reign of the pharaoh Khafre in the Old Kingdom period, around 2500 BCE.
The statue is carved from limestone and measures approximately 73 meters long, 20 meters wide, and 20 meters tall, making it one of the world’s most impressive statues.
The Great Sphinx is thought to represent a mythical creature with the body of a lion and the head of a human. However, the identity of the human figure remains a subject of debate among historians and archaeologists.
Some theories suggest that the face of the Sphinx may represent Khafre himself, while others suggest that it may be a depiction of the god Horus or a composite of various pharaohs.
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