Facts about the Pyramids of Giza
The Pyramids of Giza are among the most famous sites From ancient times until today. They were founded in the 4th dynasty, about 2620 to 2500 BC. B.C., west of the Nile, is still one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. The Great Sphinx protected the incredible structures and is comparable to the other Sphinx, the largest and most famous. It consists of a lion’s body and a human head that is too small compared to the body. The Pyramids with the Sphinx are located 15 km from downtown Cairo and have been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979. Great Pyramid (Cheops Pyramid), The largest and probably the best-known pyramid is that of Pharaoh Cheops, Chephren Pyramid; the middle of the three pyramids is that of Pharaoh Chephren and Small Pyramid (Mykerinos Pyramid).
During the 1st dynasty, the area of the pyramids was a vital cemetery. Tombs from the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd dynasties have been found at this site. The pyramids were built on a massive, 1000 x 2000m, limestone plateau. In addition to the buildings, secondary pyramids, cemeteries, working villages, and temples were established.
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Who Built the Pyramids in Egypt?
The Pyramids of Giza were built by one of Egypt’s most powerful families – father, son, and grandson. We have the Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu), the largest of the three and the first to be built.
What is the Most Famous Pyramid in Egypt?
pyramid of Cheops
pyramid of Khafre
Pyramid of Menkaure
Where are the Pyramids of Giza?
The Pyramids of Giza are located on the outskirts of the city of Cairo and are vestiges bequeathed by ancient Egyptians, the most portentous and emblematic monuments of this civilization, and in particular, the three great pyramids of Giza, the tombs or cenotaphs of the pharaohs Cheops, Khafre and Menkaure, whose construction dates back to the Old Kingdom of Egypt. With an estimated date of completion in the year 2570 a. C.
Why Did the Egyptians build the pyramids?
These pyramids were built to serve as a tomb for the body of the pharaoh; in addition, they represent the rays of the sun raising the pharaoh to join the sun god Ra, in the religion of Ancient Egypt, pharaohs were believed to be divine, personifications of the gods on earth.
How Old are the Pyramids of Giza?
The Pyramids of Giza were constructed around 4,500 years ago.
When were the Egyptian Pyramids built?
The prototype of the pyramid was built during the period between 2680 and 2565 BC. C., then they built the Step Pyramid at Saqqara in 2620 B.C. C., and each pharaonic king built a special pyramid to keep his embalmed body out of the eyes of the people.
How many Pyramids are there in Egypt?
It is very difficult to say that in Egypt, there is an exact number of pyramids because there are different shapes of pyramids or tombs, and there are those who consider it a pyramid and those who do not.
However, we can say that in Egypt, there are approximately more than 120 pyramids.
What’s on Top of the pyramids?
It is known that in the Pyramid of Dahshur, by Sneferu, father of Cheops, the top of the pyramid was pyramidally made of gold and electrum (electrum was a type of natural gold that contained 20% silver, it was very used in ancient times). Given this discovery, it is believed that the other pyramids were finished at the top similarly.
What Does a Pyramid look like inside?
The pyramids of Giza are major archaeological landmarks, but there is debate about what is inside them and what was discovered inside the other pyramids of ancient Egypt.
The pyramids of Giza are mostly solid blocks of stone with very little space inside. Like many ancient Egyptian pyramids, the pyramids of Khafre and Menkaure have passages at their base
that lead to small underground burial chambers under each pyramid. The pyramid of Khufu also has underground tunnels, but the burial chamber is located in the center of the structure,
accessed through a narrow inner passage. Contrary to what one might expect, there are no hieroglyphic texts, treasures, or mummies in any of the Giza pyramids, as the decoration
inside the pyramids began several centuries after the construction of the pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.
How were the pyramids built?
The techniques used in constructing the Egyptian pyramids have baffled and puzzled many historians and scientists for countless years. Many controversial hypotheses were introduced regarding the construction of the pyramids. The general theory is based on the belief that the huge stones were carved from the quarries using copper chisels. Then, these blocks were dragged and lifted into position. However, the method regarding the movement and placement of these stones is under great dispute.
The form of the workforce is also under considerable debate. It is believed that the pyramids were constructed using slave labor, and another theory suggests that the pyramids were built by tens of thousands of free skilled workers that worked for a salary.
What is certain is that the workforce was highly organized and managed to the highest level by following an organized and planned process that consisted of three phases
3 Phases of Building the Pyramids
The workforce depended on a specific process to build the pyramids perfectly, following three essential steps: choosing the perfect building site, site preparation, and raising the blocks.
Phase 1: Choosing the perfect building site
The first step in building a pyramid was to choose a suitable site. This had to be on the west side of the Nile where the Sun would set, considering that Ancient Egyptians believed that wherever the sunset was the portal to the afterlife.
The pyramids also needed to be situated on high ground, away from the danger of flooding at the time of the Nile’s inundation. However, it could not be too far away from the Nile bank because the river would transport blocks of fine-quality limestone for the outer casing from Tura on the other side of the Nile.
The site chosen would be at a point on the desert plateau that would be proved a firm rock base capable of supporting the great weight of the pyramid without any risk of cracking, considering that some of the most fantastic pyramids weigh around 2.5 tons.
The site chosen for the construction of each pyramid was also considered based on the distance of the pyramid to the respective king’s residence, as the King would need to inspect the development of his burial chamber regularly.
Phase 2: Preparing the site
No plans for constructing the pyramids were ever found, but the construction of pyramids was not a haphazard affair, and the measurements used were accurate to a high degree.
The workers had to prepare a firm foundation by removing the loose sand from the rock. Then, the rock base had to be made flat.
The workers may have built low mud walls around the base and cut channels in a grid pattern over the surface. Then, they would fill the channels with water and mark the level the water would reach.
After the water had drained away, protruding rock would have been cut back to the level indicated, and any depressions filled with stones to make a perfectly level surface.
Each side of the pyramid had to face one of the cardinal points. The builders probably established true north first and worked out the other directions from that. They may have found true north by sighting a star in the northern sky. They would then observe the rising and setting of the star and mark its appearance and disappearance on an artificial horizon.
By bisecting the angle thus made, they would obtain a north-south line. They had instruments for drawing right angles, so; they would then have been able to find east and west. Next, they had to make the base perfectly square. All four sides have the same length and corners at perfect right angles.
Phase 3: Raising the blocks
Sometimes rocky outcrop was used as the pyramid’s core to save the work. The inner chambers and passages would have been constructed independently, and the actual pyramid built around them.
Some of the royal pyramid builders seem to have changed their minds about their preferred location of the burial chambers. The inner pyramid would then be built of limestone cut from the desert plateau.
When the main structure was finished, the pyramid was completed by encasing it in blocks of finely cut and dressed limestone from Tura. Sometimes granite was used for the lower courses.
The stones used in the building of the pyramids were not little bricks. The bricks in the pyramid vary in size. However, the largest can be found in the King’s chamber.
These particular stones differed from the regular limestone blocks and were instead made of granite.
The precise method of raising the pyramids is not known. Pulleys were not invented until Roman times. However, the Greek historian Herodotus tells of levers used to raise the blocks from one level to the next.
It has also been suggested that team workers used a ramp to haul the blocks into position as the pyramid grew; the ramp would have been raised to enable the workers to reach the next level.
The main problem with this is that the ramp would eventually have been tremendous as the pyramid itself and would have reached an immense distance into the desert.
No trace of such a structure has been identified at any pyramid site. Another idea is that the ramp would have gone around the pyramid and was dismantled when the pyramid was completed.
Construction methods are still hotly debated and are one of the greatest mysteries of Ancient human civilization.
Why built the pyramids in this hierarchical shape?
They also believed ancient Egyptian, according to some of their writings and religious texts, that the pyramid helps the deceased’s soul reach the sky with the deity Ra.
Additionally, we can sometimes see the sun’s rays among the clouds, which also take the shape of a pyramid, and it was also one of these many means that can help them ascend to heaven.
In southern Egypt, there are a few tiny graves for people and obelisks that have been shaped like pyramids at their summits. Even when the kings of the New Kingdom considered building their tombs
on the western mainland in the Valley of the Kings and dug them into the mountain’s interior to protect them from theft; they did not abandon the pyramid shape,
which was naturally represented at the top of the mountain itself.
Why is it illegal to climb the pyramids?
This a very common question from people or travelers who always look for Egypt on the internet, especially this question. Why is it not possible to climb the pyramids in Egypt?
Indeed it is impossible to do this for the reasons of security and privacy for Egyptian history and to save the Egyptian monuments from collapse.
Also, it is illegal, so it is not advisable to try to sanctify them according to the Egyptian constitution.
Interesting facts and information about the Great Pyramids of Giza
- The three pyramids at Giza; are the most famous pyramids, and in fact, about 140 pyramids were discovered in ancient Egypt, and it is believed that the oldest Egyptian pyramid is the pyramid of “Zuser”, which was built in the cemetery of “Saqqara” during the 27th century BC.
- The original height of the Great Pyramid of Khufu is 146.5 meters (481 feet), while its current height is 138.8 meters (455 feet).
- The Great Pyramid of Giza consists of 2,300,000 stone blocks, and the weight of one block ranges between 2 and 30 tons, but some blocks weigh more than 50 tons.
- Historians disagreed about determining the number of workers who participated in building the pyramids, but the least estimate for the number of these workers is 100,000 people.
- All Egyptian pyramids were built on the west bank of the Nile, and this was associated with the world of the dead in Egyptian mythology.
- The three pyramids were not built in one way, as the techniques used to build them differed and developed during their construction period. The average construction period for one pyramid is 20 years, knowing that more than one pyramid was built simultaneously.
- The temperature outside the pyramids remains variable according to the general climate, while the temperature inside the pyramids remains relatively constant, within 20 degrees Celsius.
- The Great Pyramid was the most extended man-made structure for 3871 years until Lincoln Cathedral was built in England in 1311.
- In the 12th century, al-Aziz, the Kurdish ruler, and the second Ayyubid sultan of Egypt agreed to demolish the pyramids and ultimately destroy them. However, they abandoned this agreement because it became clear that the task was enormous and arduous. However, the effects of the vandalism were evident in the pyramid of Menkaure, where a large vertical crack was observed. The northern side.
- The stones of the pyramids were originally covered with a cover made of polished white limestone, as these stones reflected sunlight, which made the pyramids shine like a jewel.
- One of the wonders of the pyramids that may surprise you is that you are in the very hot summer weather or the harsh winter weather. When you enter the pyramids from the inside, the temperature remains constant at 20 degrees Celsius in all year’s seasons.
- The Great Pyramid is located precisely in the middle between the five continents. The front part of the Great Pyramid faces the basic directions (north-south-east-west), not any north, specifically the magnetic north and not the geographical north, and this is not a simple matter, which reveals the secret of this design; the corridor entering the Great Pyramid refers to the North Star, while the inner vestibule refers to Sirius, which are types of stars in the sky, which raises questions about whether the Great Pyramid is an observatory.
- The tombs of workers and builders were discovered in 1990 after a horse-riding tourist stumbled on a stone, and it turned out to be a cemetery, after which 600 other tombs were found.
Legends and Wonders of the Pyramids of Giza:
- When colored water is placed in the aisles of the pyramid for a few days, it returns pure and unpolluted.
- If meat is placed in the aisles of the pyramid, it will not rot.
- Plants grow more if they stand in the aisles of the pyramid for a few days.
- The disappearance of nicotine from cigarettes after being placed in the aisles of the pyramid.
Secret Chambers in the Pyramid:
A snake-shaped robot was designed to enter the most accurate passages of the pyramid and to photograph the pyramid from the inside. Secret chambers and tunnels have been found in the pyramid that has not yet been discovered, as well as hieroglyphic drawings and engravings.
An opening was found at the top of the pyramid of Menkaure, which allows the sun to enter once a year on the king’s birthday.
The connection between the construction of the Pyramids of Giza and astronomy:
- The pyramid is built on 4 corners showing the 4 directions.
- The three pyramids of Giza were built according to the three stars of the twin belts and a statue of the Sphinx towards Leo.
Secrets of the tombs of queens and sons?
Watch out for the kings of the pharaohs building luxurious and elegant tombs for wives and young sons next to the pyramid; a group of royal tombs was discovered, such as the tomb of Juncker and Prince Steindorf.